|Kris L. Christine
Joined: 01 Feb 2008
Location: THE RABIES CHALLENGE FUND
|Posted: 10/31/11, 6:40 am Post subject: 2011 AAHA Vaccine Guidelines
|2011 American Animal Hospital Association's Canine Vaccine Guidelines https://www.aahanet.org/PublicDocuments/CanineVaccineGuidelines.pdf
p. 3 "When compared with infectious (attenuated, avirulent, modified live, recombinant viral vectored) vaccines, noninfectious vaccines are more likely to produce local and systemic adverse reactions in some dogs."
p.10 "Most noninfectious vaccines require at least two initial doses to immunize, regardless of the dog's age. The first does of a noninfectious vaccine generally primes the immune response and the second dose, which should be administered 2-6 weeks later, provides the protective immune response. Immunity typically develops approximately 7 days after the second dose. Therefore, the minimum time for onset of immunity is approximately 3 wk after administration of the first dose of a noninfectious vaccine"
p. 12 "Because dogs older than 14-16 wk of age are not likely to have interfering levels of MDA [maternally derived antibodies], administration of a single initial dose of an infectious vaccine to an adult dog can be expected to induce a protective immune response. ..... MDA is the most common reason early vaccination fails to immunize."
p. 12 "The onset of immunity after administration of a single dose of infectious core vaccine is approximately 4+3 days in the absence of MDA [maternally derived antibodies]."
p.13 "Infectious core vaccines are not only highly effective, they also provide the longest DOI [duration of immunity], extending from 5 yr up to the life of the dog."
p. 17 "Despite the confusion and controversy surrounding antibody testing, these serologic tests are useful for monitoring immunity to CDV, CPV-2, CAV-1, and RV. .....On completion of the puppy core vaccination series with the last dose given at 14-16 wk of age, a dog can be expected to have an antibody titer or positive test result, regardless of the serologic test performed, provided the serum sample is collected > 2 wk after the last dose of vaccine." (CDV=distemper, CPV-2 = parvovirus, CAV-1 hepatitis, RV= rabies)
p. 18 "....the last dose of CDV and CPV should be administered at 14-16 wk of age. At this age, MDA should be at a level that will not block active immunity in most puppies (>98%) when a combination MLV vaccine is administered."
p. 18 "In a study reported in 1997, dogs vaccinated with a product containing CDV (canine distemper virus) and then placed in an environment without CDV maintained antibody titers for at least 10 yr."
p. 20 "...the list that follows includes categories of adverse reactions that have been attributed to vaccine administration.
-Injection-site reactions: lumps (abscess, granuloma, seroma), pain, swelling, hair loss associated with ischemic vasculitis
-Transient postvaccinal nonspecific illness: lethargy, anorexia, fever, regional lymphadenomegaly, soreness, abortion, encephalitis, polyneuritis, arthritis, seizures, behavioral changes, hair loss or color change at the injection site, respiratory disease
-Allergic (hypersensitivity) and immune-mediated reactions:
Type 1 (acute anaphylaxis): angiodema (especially the head), anaphylaxis (shock) and death
Type 2 (cytolytic): immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (suspected only; causality has not been confirmed)
Type 3 (immune-complex): cutaneous ischemic vasculopathy associated with rabies vaccine, corneal edema ('blue-eye') associated with CAV-1 vaccine, immune-mediated disease.
-Tumorigenesis: vaccine-associated sarcoma or other tumors
Multisystemic infectious/inflammatory disorder of young Weimaraner dogs: may be genetically linked to both a poorly characterized immunodeficiency and to autoimmune disorders (e.g., hypothyroidism and hypertrophic osteodystrophy [HOD] that are detected shortly after vaccination
-Vaccine-induced immunosuppression: associated with first or second dose of combination MLV vaccines containing CDV and CAV-1 or CAV-2 with or without other vaccines (e.g., CPV-2, CPI). Immunosuppression begins 3 days after vaccination and persists for 7-10 days. The suppression may be associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases.
p. 21 "It is reasonable to avoid administration of any vaccine to patients with a history of systemic disease suspected to be associated with previous vaccination (e.g., immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia) or known to be caused by vaccine (vaccination-site cutaneous ischemic vasculitis after administration of rabies vaccine).
p. 28 "As with pregnant dogs, veterinary medicine has advised against vaccination during illness, due to concerns about suboptimal protection, or worse, vaccine-induced illness."
p. 29 "Manufacturers only recommend administration of vaccine to healthy dogs. Dogs receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy should not be vaccinated. Doing so may result in a suboptimal immune response or may aggravate (reactivate) an immune-mediated illness."
p.33 "Vaccine adverse events are significantly underreported in veterinary medicine."
p. 34 "The vaccination protocol that includes the minimum number of vaccines yet still provides a reasonable opportunity to immunize the dog would be: a single dose of combined infectious (attenuated, avirulent, modified live, recombinant viral vectored) CDV, MLV CPV-2, with MLV CAV-2, administered at 16 wk of age or older, plus a rabies shot at the same time (but inoculated at a separate site on the body)."
Kris L. Christine
THE RABIES CHALLENGE FUND